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Upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs) are nanoscale particles (diameter 1– nm) that exhibit photon upconversion. In photon upconversion, two or more.
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Understanding upconversion nanocrystals: this review intends to summarize instrumental matters related to the characterization of upconversion nanocrystals from surface structures to intrinsic properties to ultimate challenges in nanocrystal analysis at single-particle levels. Nanophotonic control of light upconversion in the hierarchical core—shell nanostructures, their biomedical, solar energy and security encoding applications were reviewed.

This review surveys the use of combinatorial and high-throughput techniques for the rapid discovery, optimization, and application of upconverting nanomaterials. A comprehensive review of the theoretical background is provided for understanding photon upconversion with particular attention to assessing photoluminescence dynamics in rare-earth activated nanophosphors.

In this review, the various energy transfer pathways involved in lanthanide-related upconversion emissions are comprehensively discussed. This review highlights recent advances in upconversion luminescence materials in response to various stimuli for a broad spectrum of applications. Based on a survey of existing studies, low nanotoxicity of lanthanide doped upconverting nanoparticles holds promise for their safety and suitability for biomedical detection and imaging. A well-defined surface architecture is essential to generate water-dispersible UCNPs that are long-term stable and enable a wealth of bioanalytical applications.

The association between the chemo-physical properties of UCNPs and their biodistribution, excretion, and toxic effects is presented in this review. The latest advances in lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles were comprehensively reviewed, which covers from their fundamental photophysics to biodetection. This review aims to summarize recent progress in optical properties and applications engineering of upconversion nanoparticles via the designed nanostructure.

Upconversion nanoparticles enable use of near infrared light for spatially and temporally controlled activation of therapeutic compounds in deeper tissues. This tutorial review highlights recent advances in the development of upconversion core—shell nanoparticles to cater for biological and energy applications.

Upconverting nanoparticles UCNPs enable the establishment of a novel UCNP-based platform for wide-field two-photon microscopy and multimodal in vivo imaging. We are pleased to present a themed issue of Chemical Society Reviews which aims to focus on recent developments in photon upconversion nanomaterials over a broad range of disciplines. New articles will be added to this collection as they are published. Jump to main content. Jump to site search. Journals Books Databases. Search Advanced. Read the full text.

Tools Request permission Export citation Add to favorites Track citation. Share Give access Share full text access. Share full text access. Please review our Terms and Conditions of Use and check box below to share full-text version of article. Abstract Organolead halide perovskites OHPs have shown unprecedented potentials in optoelectronics. Citing Literature. Supporting Information Filename Description adfmsupS1. Volume 28 , Issue 31 August 1, Related Information. Close Figure Viewer. Browse All Figures Return to Figure. The tunable and multiplexed emissions allow for the simultaneous detection of different species.

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There are three ways to construct UCNP-based drug delivery systems. First, UCNPs can transport hydrophobic drugs, like doxorubicin, by encapsulating them on the particle surface, the hydrophobic pocket. The drug can be released by a pH change. Second, mesoporous silica coated UCNPs can be used, where drugs can be stored and released from the porous surface. Thirdly, the drug can be encapsulated and transferred in a hollow UCNP shell. Light-activated processes that deliver or activate medicine are known as photodynamic therapeutic PDT.

Many photoactive compounds, are triggered by UV light, which has smaller penetration depth and causes more tissue damage ciompared with IR light. For instance, UCNPs can absorb IR light and emit visible light to trigger a photosensitizer, which can produce highly reactive singlet oxygen to destroy tumor cells. This non-toxic and effective approach has been demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. Similarly, UCNPs can be used in photothermal therapy, which destroys targets by heat.

Photon-Upconverting Materials: Advances and Prospects for Various Emerging Applications

In UCNP-plasmonic nanoparticle composites e. UCNPs have been integrated into solar panels to broaden the spectrum of sunlight that can be captured and converted into electricity. The maximum output of a solar cell is dictated in part by the fraction of incident photons captured to promote electrons. Solar cells can only absorb and convert photons with energy equal to or greater than the bandgap. Any incident photon with energy smaller than the bandgap is lost. UCNPs can capture this wasted sunlight by combining multiple low energy IR photons into a single high energy photon.

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The emitted photon will have sufficient energy to promote charge carriers across the band gap. For example, UCNPs can be laminated onto the back sides of semiconductors as a film, to collect low energy light and upconvert it. Another strategy is to disperse the nanoparticles throughout a highly porous material.

In one device architecture, UCNPs are infiltrated into a titania micro-scaffold. Photoswitching is the conversion from one chemical isomer to another triggered by light. Photoswitching finds use in optical data processing and storage and in photorelease. Photorelease is the use of light to induce a moiety attached to the nanoparticle surface to detach.

Photocatalytic systems can be enhanced with UCNPs by the same principle as solar cells. The excitation in titania results in a surface redox reaction which decomposes compounds near the surface. In biological contexts UV light is highly absorbed and causes tissue damage.


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Core-shell UCNPs were used to initiate the photocleavage of a ruthenium complex using an intensity of NIR light that is completely safe in biomedical use. UCNP-based systems can couple both light-based techniques and current-based techniques. This optical stimulation of semiconductors is then coupled with voltage-based stimulation in order to store information. Furthermore, imperfections in the UCNP film will not affect data storage. These advantages yielded an impressive achieved storage limit, making UCNP films a promising material in optical storage. Anti-counterfeiting codes or prints can be fabricated using UCNPs in existing colloidal ink preparations.

Red, green and blue upconverting inks have been achieved. The color produced from some overlapped ink depends on the power density of the NIR excitation, which enables the incorporation of additional security features. The use of upconverting nanoparticles in fingerprinting is highly selective. The upconverting nanoparticles can bind to lysozyme in sweat that is deposited when a fingertip touches a surface.

Also, a cocaine -specific aptamer is developed to identify cocaine-laced fingerprints by the same method. Upconverting nanoparticles can also be used for barcoding. These micro-barcodes can be embedded onto various objects.

Photon Upconversion Nanomaterials

The barcodes are seen under NIR illumination and can be imaged using an iPhone camera and a microscope objective. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Science and Technology of Advanced Materials. Physical Review Letters. Bibcode : PhRvL Angewandte Chemie International Ed. In English. Chemical Reviews. Applied Physics Letters. Bibcode : ApPhL.. Modern Problems in Condensed Matter Sciences. Chemical Society Reviews. Annual Review of Physical Chemistry. Bibcode : ARPC Advanced Materials. Angewandte Chemie International Edition.

Photon Upconversion Nanomaterials | Fan Zhang | Springer

Advanced Science. Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. Analytica Chimica Acta. Accounts of Chemical Research.


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  5. Scientific Reports. Bibcode : NatSR Bioconjugate Chemistry. Bibcode : Nanos Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells. Nature Photonics. Bibcode : NaPho