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- Microsoft Exchange Server 2003 SP2 debuts
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This book is a clear, to-the-point source of information filled with sound practical advice. Whether you're new to Exchange or upgrading your existing Exchange systems, this detailed guide can help you tap all the power, performance, and features of Exchange This is recommended reading for my staff and it should be for yours as well.
David Espinoza, Group Manager Exchange Engineering, Operations and Technology Group, Microsoft "Tony Redmond peels away the myths, mysteries and misconceptions surrounding Exchange and guides the reader safely through the many trip-wires that lie in wait. This book is mandatory reference material for any corporation embarking on a phased migration to Exchange while keeping the corporate messaging infrastructure running.
Another great text from the master of the subject. Provides thorough coverage of implementation, migration and management issues for Exchange and , all backed up by best practices developed by HP, Microsoft's only world-wide Prime Integrator for Exchange. The new edition features key updates based on practical expericence of working with Exchange since its release in , including all of the service packs issued since, plus detailed description of the new functionality included in Exchange and Outlook See all Editorial Reviews.
Not Enabled. Share your thoughts with other customers. Write a customer review. Showing of 1 reviews. Top Reviews Most recent Top Reviews. There was a problem filtering reviews right now. Please try again later. Format: Paperback Verified Purchase. It depends on what kind of book you are looking for. For the full-time Exchange Admin, this book goes into lots of under the hood detail. This book is at a very high level in that respect, yet never mentions more basic things that I was looking for.
How do you bring Exchange into an existing Exchange organization? This is my primary objective, which gets a brief mention, but only for running an in-place upgrade. There's lots of coverage on migrating from Exchange 5. How does one bring additional servers into the organization?
This book was written from the perspective of a very large organization with a multitude of Exchange servers. It's got a lot of strategic design issues covered, but for someone with a small Exchange installation, it's up in the clouds. The author is no doubt an expert, but the audience for this book isn't everyone who will move to Exchange See the review. Amazon Giveaway allows you to run promotional giveaways in order to create buzz, reward your audience, and attract new followers and customers.
Learn more about Amazon Giveaway. Set up a giveaway. There's a problem loading this menu right now. Learn more about Amazon Prime. Get fast, free delivery with Amazon Prime. DLL If you recall the earlier discussion of cluster-aware versus non cluster-aware applications, you remember that it is the existence of an application-specific resource DLL that is the key differentiator for cluster-aware applications. Also remember that Microsoft Exchange 5. For Microsoft Exchange Server , Microsoft developers took the extra time and effort to guarantee full-cluster functionality. This DLL for Microsoft Exchange Server is installed when the setup application realizes that it is operating in a clustered environment.
DLL will provide between Microsoft Exchange resources and cluster services. Table 4. Can be configured in cluster administrator on a per- resource basis. Failed The resource failed on the Is Alive call and was not able to be restarted restart failed.
Microsoft Exchange Server 2003 SP2 debuts
Restart Resource has failed on Is Alive call and it directed to attempt to restart. DLL In order for Microsoft Exchange resources to be configured and controlled by the Cluster Administrator, there must be an enabler for Microsoft Exchange services to communicate with the Cluster Administrator and for the Cluster Administrator program to provide Microsoft Exchange- specific configuration parameters and screens.
DLL provides this support. The cluster administration DLL is a key component in configuration and management of Microsoft Exchange services in the cluster. It is not required for resource monitoring and restart or failover actions.
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DLL performs this role. Microsoft Exchange Server cluster resource dependencies Figure 3 illustrates a tree structure of Microsoft Exchange cluster resource dependencies and Figure 4 shows the newer Microsoft Exchange Server cluster resource dependencies. Microsoft Exchange services must have certain resources as predecessors before they can be brought online as a cluster resource.
By default, Microsoft Exchange Server installs nine resources in the form of virtual servers into a cluster resource group that is being configured in the Cluster Administrator. Table 5 provides a brief description of each resource and its function. Figure 3. When you make a change to Storage Group configuration including Recovery Storage Groups, covered later in this document , you will see the prompt in System Manager shown in Figure 5 below to ensure proper disk resource dependencies.
Figure 5. Note: As shown in Table 5 below, Microsoft Exchange Server changes the Resource dependencies so that the Internet protocols shown above are dependent directly on the System Attendant instead of the Store. Table 5. Provided for legacy messaging connector support and routing to Microsoft Exchange 5. Resource Dependency: System Attendant 17 Provides Microsoft Exchange content indexing service for clients.
Can be removed if that protocol is not needed. Provides POP3 client access to information store. Provides IMAP client access to information store. Resource Dependency: Microsoft Exchange - System Attendant Microsoft Exchange - Information Store When configuring cluster resources for Microsoft Exchange, four prerequisites must be satisfied, each of these will be explained in more detail: 1. Microsoft Exchange Server must be installed on all cluster nodes where Microsoft Exchange Virtual Servers will run.
The network name must be created. As this resource is dependent upon the IP address, the IP address must be assigned and the resource created first. The final step that must be accomplished before creating the Microsoft Exchange System Attendant is to create the physical disk resources that are required by the virtual server you are configuring.
At a minimum, there must be at least one physical disk resource configured for Microsoft Exchange virtual servers to be added to the cluster configuration.
When Microsoft Exchange cluster resources start and stop change states , they must do so in order of resource dependency. This means that on startup, resources start in forward order of resource dependence bottom to top in Figure 5. When resources are stopped or a resource group is taken offline , resources are shutdown in reverse order of dependence top to bottom in Figure 5.
When configuring cluster resources, having an understanding of the resource dependencies for Microsoft Exchange Server clustering makes the task simpler. Microsoft Exchange virtual servers The virtual server is the key unit of client access for Microsoft Exchange Server services running in a clustered environment. Virtual servers exist for several different Microsoft Exchange Server services as shown in Table 5.
The virtual server is the name by which clients, resources, and other services access individual Microsoft Exchange services within the cluster. In Microsoft Exchange 18 The virtual server takes on the name property of the network name resource that is configured prior to configuring Microsoft Exchange resources. Microsoft Exchange virtual server resources will all failover in the cluster as a managed unit.
This means that the entire cluster resource group containing the virtual server resources will be failed over together from one node in the cluster to another.
One or more Microsoft Exchange information storage groups can be configured as part of a Microsoft Exchange Server virtual server. However, a storage group can only belong to one virtual server. When deploying Microsoft Exchange Server clusters, ensure that you familiarize yourself with virtual servers and how they are used. This limits the workload of each node in a 2-node cluster , as you must leave ample headroom for the failover to occur. See Table 8 and the section preceding it for the restrictions. If you do not plan your implementation carefully, you may have to tear down your cluster implementation and re- implement it, including backup and restoration of critical data.
Best practices for hardware Check for hardware compatibility The hardware used in a cluster must be listed on the Microsoft Windows Catalogs from Microsoft. If you implement hardware that is not in the catalog, Microsoft will not support your cluster configuration. Choose standardized configurations You should configure all nodes in a cluster with identical specifications for memory, disks, CPUs, etc.
Implementing nodes of varying specifications can lead to inconsistent performance levels as Microsoft Exchange Virtual Servers are moved between nodes. You may hear references to deployments of non-standardized configurations; however, be certain of the reasons for using varying hardware platforms.
These are desirable mainly due to the frequency of applying new builds since Microsoft frequently tests the newest versions; applying them into production during the development release cycle. In addition, varying hardware platforms can be used in a TEST cluster for evaluating new technology such as the difference between 4-way and 6-way platforms of varying processor speeds and cache sizes etc. In addition to standardized hardware from the Microsoft Windows Catalogs , Microsoft specifies that many configuration settings must be the same.
For example, all network adapters on the same cluster network must use identical communication settings such as speed, duplex mode, flow control, and media type. The adapters connected to the same switch must have identical port settings on the switch. Ideally, the NICs for each network should be identical hardware models and firmware revision level in each server. In addition, each cluster network must be configured as a single IP subnet whose subnet is distinct from those of the other cluster network.
Hardware redundancy The key design principle of any cluster deployment is to provide high availability. In the event of a hardware failure, a failover operation will move resources from the failed node to another node in the cluster. During failovers of Microsoft Exchange, users will not be able to access e-mail folders for a short time as resources are taken offline on the failed node and brought online on the other node. For each node in the cluster, implement redundant hardware components in order to reduce the impact of a hardware failure and thus avoid a failover. A cluster connected by only one network is not a supported configuration.
In addition, each network must fail independently of every other. No single component failure, neither a Network Interface Card NIC nor switch failure, should cause both cluster networks to fail. Teaming allows multiple network cards to act as a single virtual card which is configured as if it were a single card.
This allows for the failure of a single NIC card, cable or switch port without any interruption of service. When split across multiple network switches, switch failure can be handled. Use NFT teaming on the public client network in a cluster; however do not use NIC teaming for the private heartbeat network in a cluster as it is not supported by Microsoft see Q Previous versions did not load-balance, and required manually setting the paths which was not persistent across reboots.
If you are using an older version or are not sure, check the SAN throughput at the switch ports to see that they are both active. Best practices for cluster configuration Understanding resource dependency In the earlier section on resource dependencies, it was made clear that there is a specific sequence in which resources are brought online or taken offline, as dictated by the resource dependency. It is critical in your design to understand that the Microsoft Exchange System Attendant Resource is dependent on all physical disks for that virtual server.
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This means that an entire Microsoft Exchange Server can be affected by failure of any disk resource, be it database or log file drives. For very large servers in a SAN environment, this exposes all users on that server to downtime for any disk resource failure, which is quite undesirable. It is essential that all drives be protected from any failure through RAID and redundant paths and that the number of disk resources is limited in order to reduce the risk of a drive failure impacting the Microsoft Exchange virtual server. For example, a very large Microsoft Exchange server with disks for four 4 Storage Groups, log files and separate disks for the SMTP mailroot, and each of twenty 20 databases would perhaps be best split into 2 or more virtual servers.
Planning cluster groups Create a cluster group to contain only the quorum disk resource, cluster name, and cluster IP address. The benefit of separating the quorum resource from the Microsoft Exchange cluster groups is that the cluster will remain on-line if one of the resources fails in a Microsoft Exchange cluster group. The cluster resource group owning the quorum can be run on the passive node, which isolates it from the load of the active nodes. If the active node experiences a hard fault resulting in node failover, the failover may be quicker because the cluster resource group is already online on the surviving node.
Planning quorum type Deciding on the quorum type is important, as the type of quorum resource determines the type of cluster. This decision between one of three types must be made before cluster installation. The cluster type is either a quorum-device cluster using either a local quorum or a single quorum device on a shared SCSI bus or Fibre Channel or a majority-of-nodes cluster. A quorum-device cluster is defined by a quorum using either the Physical Disk resource type or local quorum resource type in either Microsoft Windows or The local quorum resource is often used for the purpose of setting up a single-node cluster for testing and development.
In Microsoft Windows Server , the Cluster service automatically creates the local quorum resource if it does not detect a shared disk you do not need to specify a special switch as in the Microsoft Windows procedure. You may also create the local quorum resource, after installation of a quorum on a single quorum device e. This can be beneficial if you need to replace or make other repairs on the shared disk resource subsystem e.
Microsoft Exchange Server (HP Technologies) 1, Tony Redmond, eBook - ugusecuvedij.ga
Figure 6. Selecting Quorum type during Cluster Setup A majority-of-nodes cluster is only available in Microsoft Windows , and is defined by a majority node set quorum, where each node maintains its own copy of the cluster configuration data. Determination of which node owns the quorum and whether the cluster is even operational, is done through access to file shares. Since this design is much more complex, it is not advised unless you work carefully with the team or engineer providing the storage architecture.
Storage planning Storage design is critical Before building a cluster, you should try to estimate storage requirements. Microsoft Exchange databases expand over time and you may start to run out of disk space if you have not implemented sufficient capacity. Having spare capacity is also useful for performing database maintenance and disaster recovery exercises. Adding additional disk space to a cluster may require future downtime if your array controller does not support dynamic volume expansion. Placement of Microsoft Windows and Microsoft Exchange components As part of the storage design process, you will need to consider the placement of the following Microsoft Windows and Microsoft Exchange components, listed in Table 6, below.
Table 6. Placement of Microsoft Windows and Microsoft Exchange components. For clusters holding large numbers of mailboxes, Microsoft recommends deploying a dedicated mirrored drive for the pagefile to achieve improved performance. A write-caching controller can help improvement performance of these disks and it should be battery-backed for protection against data loss during power disruptions. Microsoft Exchange Server binaries Microsoft Exchange Server can be installed on to the same mirrored drive as Microsoft Windows Server with little impact to performance.
A separate logical volume or disk array can be used for convenience if desired. Storage groups, databases, and transaction logs A storage group is a Microsoft Exchange management entity within the Store process that controls a number of databases that use a common set of transaction logs. The header and property information of all messages is held in the EDB file. LOG — All changes to the database are first written to the transaction log, then to database pages cached in memory IS buffers , and finally asynchronously , to the database files on disk.
CHK — Checkpoint files keep track of which transactions have been committed to disk. Figure 7 shows two storage groups. As mentioned previously, there is one set of transaction logs per storage group. Figure 7. Storage Groups Assigning drive-letters and labels Microsoft Knowledge Base article Q describes some best practices for assigning drive letters on a cluster server.
Microsoft recommends using Q as the quorum drive, and use letters R through to Z as drives in the shared storage. Another good tip from Q label the drives to match the drive letter. In a disaster recovery situation the drive letter information might get erased. Figure 8. Setting a drive label to match the drive letter. Assign Q: to the quorum drive By convention, the quorum resource is usually placed on a partition with the drive-letter Q. You should assign a separate physical disk in the shared storage to the quorum.
This practice makes it easier to manage the cluster and your storage. It was important in Microsoft Exchange that you did not assign the drive letter M: to any drives in the shared storage. If a partition has been assigned the letter M: or a network drive has been mapped using M:, it would cause the Microsoft Exchange installation to fail. Assigning drive-letters to storage groups and databases In some scenarios, Microsoft Exchange cluster administrators have exhausted all available drive letters, especially on clusters with multiple storage groups, databases, and virtual servers.
For example, an administrator decides to allocate a drive letter to each Microsoft Exchange database on a virtual server with four storage groups. In each storage group, there are six databases.
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In this scenario, 24 drive-letters will have to be assigned. Microsoft Windows Server lifts the restrictions on drive letters by providing support for mount points in clusters. The new drive is then accessed via this folder. Writes to S:Logs will go directly to Disk 25, as shown in logical disk manager below. Figure 9. Sample Disk Management view showing Disk 25 as Mount Point See the section on mount points for more detailed information on proper configuration.
Another way to avoid drive letter restrictions is as follows: do not dedicate volumes to individual Microsoft Exchange databases. Create partitions large enough to hold multiple Microsoft Exchange databases and group all databases from the same storage group on the same partitions. If a partition contains databases from multiple storage groups and the disk resource goes offline, it will dismount databases in all of the storage groups on that disk partition. If files are placed across multiple volumes and one volume fails, the other databases would still be affected.
At a minimum, the Stores will go offline and then come back online if possible. This makes it easier to locate and manage database files. Use the HP storage planning calculator for Microsoft Exchange whenever possible to ensure that the design includes enough physical spindles. Transaction logs should be placed on a mirrored RAID 1 drive.
Transaction logs allow you to replay transactions that have taken place since the last backup. They should be placed on drives separate to the databases to facilitate recovery and for performance reasons. The HP Enterprise Virtual Array can spread the virtual disk over many physical spindles for high performance, and also provide RAID protection as vraid1 with hot sparing.
Keeping these components separate from the databases also makes it easier to evaluate the performance of the database and queue drives. Figure Do not split spindles across multiple Microsoft Exchange virtual servers and cluster groups. If you need to take a disk offline for maintenance, only one Microsoft Exchange virtual server would be impacted. The new drive is then accessed via this folder, for example S:Logs where S: is disk 21 in logical disk manager will write directly to disk 25, as shown in logical disk manager in Figure Microsoft Windows Server eases restrictions on assigning drive letters by providing support for mount points in clusters.
Resource dependencies Mount points are a physical disk resource type and should be created as dependent on the parent resource the drive which is assigned a letter. If the parent resource goes offline then the junction point for the volume mount point VMP , which is a folder on parent resource, is no longer available and writes to the VMP will fail. Thus, it is critical that the mount point be gracefully taken offline first, forcing all outstanding writes.
Recovering drives with mount points If it is necessary to replace or recover the parent drive resource, the mount point must be re-associated with the folder on the parent drive. This is done by selecting the mount point volume in Disk Manager Diskmgmt. This folder will have newly created Microsoft Exchange transaction logs, which must be removed. Use a consistent naming standard for folders and databases You should use a consistent naming standard for Microsoft Exchange folders and databases.
It makes it easier to determine which Storage Group a database belongs to. A suggested naming convention is shown in Table 7. EDB is mailbox store 3 and is owned by Storage Group 2. On clusters with multiple Microsoft Exchange virtual servers you should extend the naming standard to include the virtual server. EDB denotes that this database belongs to virtual server 1. This makes it easier for the administrator to determine that Microsoft Exchange components are stored in the folders.
Table 7. ST M 32 Cluster naming conventions Given the additional complexity and terminology of clusters, it is a good idea to choose a consistent naming convention to aid understanding. In a two node Microsoft Exchange cluster, you will need to assign names to cluster groups, node names, and virtual servers, as shown in Cluster Administrator in Figure You just clipped your first slide!